Edited by: Barbara E. Chandler, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA
Earn 2 AOTA CEUs (25 NBCOT PDUs/20 contact hours)
PLEASE NOTE: We no longer accept paper exam submissions. When you are ready to complete the exam for this course, please go to learn.aota.org where your exam can be found.
Occupational therapy brings the perspective of occupational engagement to early childhood practice. Advances or deviations in childhood development resonate throughout the child's body and experience. How these changes are expressed, experienced, and addressed from a family-centered focus has profound implications for the child's ability to engage in occupations that are meaningful and valuable for their quality of life.
Focusing on community-based programs, this outstanding new SPCC is an enlightening journey through occupational therapy with children at the earliest stage of their lives. The course explores the driving force of federal legislation in occupational therapy practice and how practitioners can articulate and demonstrate the profession's long-standing expertise in transitioning early childhood development into occupational engagement in natural environments.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: The Structure and Interaction of Service Provision Systems
Chapter 2: Models and Process of Service Provision in Early Childhood
Chapter 3: Family-Centered Practice
Chapter 4: Infant, Toddler, and Young Child Development
Chapter 5: Evaluation, Assessment, and Outcomes in Early Childhood
Chapter 6: A Day in the Life of a Young Child: Routines and Natural Environments
Chapter 7: Play in Early Childhood
Chapter 8: Assistive Technology and Young Children: Laying a Foundation for the Future
After completing this SPCC readers will be able to
- Identify the legislative foundations of the four primary early childhood programs authorized by federal legislation.
- ompare and contrast the ways that interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, and transdisciplinary teams are composed and work.
- Identify the key principles of family-centered care and how these principles are reflected in the services provided in the Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities Program, Head Start, and Early Headstart.
- Delineate the various ways that occupational engagement is supported by the interaction of developmental processes.
- State and describe the three anticipated outcomes for each child enrolled in the Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities Program.
- Compare and contrast the use and meaning of the terms routines and natural environments in the Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities Program and the profession of occupational therapy.
- Differentiate play as means and play as occupation.
- Identify how assistive technology is used in early childhood programs.
Barbara E. Chandler, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA, has been an occupational therapist for 34 years. She received a bachelor's degree in American studies and sociology from the University of Tennessee and a master's degree in occupational therapy from Western Michigan University. She holds a doctorate in educational leadership.
Chandler is an occupational therapist with the Children's Developmental Services Agency, the state early intervention program in Asheville, North Carolina. She also provides consultative services through her private practice, Therapeutic Services and Design. She worked in the public schools and operated the private practice in western North Carolina for 12 years before serving as the first pediatric program manager of the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) from 1988 to 1993. As assistant professor at Shenandoah University from 1993 to 1998 and associate professor at James Madison University from 1999 to 2006, she participated in the development of graduate-level occupational therapy programs.
Chandler writes the long-running "Classroom Clinic" in ADVANCE for Occupational Therapy Practitioners and has lectured and written extensively on occupational therapy services under the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). She is the immediate past chairperson of the AOTA Early Intervention and School Special Interest Section (EISSIS).
Frances A. Davis, MA, LPA, is senior research associate and developmental psychologist with the Family, Infant and Preschool Program in Morganton, North Carolina, a nationally recognized program for its innovative work with families and their young children. She received an MA in developmental psychology from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro and is a North Carolina–licensed psychological associate. She has 19 years of experience providing home-based early intervention supports to children and families. Davis's research activities focus on early intervention and early childhood practices that promote parent–child interactions important for the development of cognitive and social–emotional competencies in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers.
Gloria Frolek Clark, MS, BCP, OTR/L, FAOTA, is a graduate of the University of North Dakota's occupational therapy program. She received her master's degree in early childhood special education from Iowa State University and is a doctoral candidate in the Iowa State University Early Childhood program.
Clark has focused on early intervention and school practice and policy. After working for more than 30 years as an early childhood/school occupational therapist and a state consultant for occupational therapy, she is employed by the Iowa Department of Education as an early childhood consultant. At the state and local levels, she has been involved in various research activities, including development of a statewide handwriting screening tool known as the IOWAN and a Web-based IFSP outcome module.
Nationally, Clark presents on early intervention and school practice and methods of monitoring student performance. She also has served in various volunteer positions for the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA), including as a co-founder and first chairperson of AOTA's Early Intervention and School Special Interest Section (EISSIS), as a member of the Commission on Practice and of the Pediatric Specialty Board, and as faculty for regional early intervention and school-based practice workshops. She is a coauthor of AOTA's Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process, has written several AOTA self-study chapters and an audioconference, and has co-authored several AOTA official documents.
Joanne Jackson Foss, PhD, OTR/L, is the assistant dean of student affairs and a clinical assistant professor at the University of Florida College of Public Health and Health Professions. She is also the program director of the University of Florida's master's in occupational therapy program. Foss received her bachelor's degree in occupational therapy in 1975 from Colorado State University, her master's degree from Syracuse University, and her doctorate from the University of Florida. She teaches courses in applied lifespan human development and pediatric assessment and intervention.
Foss's research interests are in professional health education and pediatric assessment and intervention. She has served as an investigator, author, and editor of self-study programs to train occupational and physical therapists in early intervention services. She is specifically interested in neurobehavioral and neuromotor development in young children with disabilities.
Terry Giese, MBA, OT/L, FAOTA, is the lead therapist (occupational therapy, physical therapy) for Naperville Community Unit School District 203 in Illinois, where she also serves on the Early Childhood Diagnostic Team. She has been active in AOTA and Illinois Occupational Therapy Association leadership for more than 20 years and is the ex-officio chairperson of the Naperville Mayor's Advisory Commission on Disabilities. For AOTA, Terry has served as the vice-chair of the Nominating Committee and as Illinois representative to the Representative Assembly, Task Force leader. She authored the position paper on the role of occupational therapy in complementary and alternative medicine. Occupational therapy practice and presentations have taken her to Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, South America, and across the United States and Puerto Rico.
Rebecca E. Argabrite Grove, MS, OTR/L, has a BA in psychology from the University of Virginia and an MS in occupational therapy from Shenandoah University. She has worked with Loudoun County Public Schools in Virginia for 13 years as an occupational therapist, assistive technology trainer and, most recently, elementary special education supervisor. She served two consecutive terms as president of the Virginia Occupational Therapy Association (VOTA) in addition to serving as the VOTA school system co-liaison and bylaws and ethics chair.
Argabrite Grove has served AOTA as vice-chairperson of the Affiliated State Association Presidents and is the Virginia representative to AOTA's Representative Assembly as well as a member of the Bylaws, Policies, and Procedures Committee. She has conducted numerous presentations on occupational therapy and education-related topics at local, state, and national levels and has published articles on psychosocial practice, assistive technology, and play. She is the recipient of the VOTA Award of Merit and the Shenandoah University Alumni Association Young Career Achievement Award.
Elise Holloway, MPH, OTR/L, is occupational therapy clinical specialist for Children's Services at Huntington Memorial Hospital in Pasadena, California. In addition, she is the occupational therapy consultant for the Early Start Program at Eastern Los Angeles Regional Center. She has worked in early childhood settings for more than 30 years.
Holloway has served on the standing committee for AOTA's Developmental Disabilities Special Interest Section and Sensory Integration Special Interest Section. She was a faculty member of AOTA's Family-Centered Care Trainings and co-authored AOTA's Knowledge and Skills paper on occupational therapy practice in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. She also co-chaired the California Early Intervention Personnel Preparation Task Force, which defined best personnel practices for the state.
Holloway has published and lectured internationally on the topic of occupational therapy in early intervention; her expertise is in the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, infant mental health, feeding, and sensory processing.
Anne Lucas, MS, OTR/L, is an early childhood technical assistance specialist at the National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center at the University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill and the Western Regional Resource Center at the University of Oregon. She provides technical assistance to states and territories nationwide focusing on Part C early intervention and preschool special education. In this capacity, she assists states with making systemic change and improving outcomes for young children with disabilities and their families. Her technical assistance focuses on helping states establish effective infrastructures, develop appropriate state policy, and implement evidence-based, family-centered practices in the context of everyday routines and activities.
Previously, Lucas was the state Part C coordinator in Virginia, the director of one of the nation's first early intervention programs, and a practicing occupational therapist in early intervention for a children's hospital and local school system. As a practitioner, program administrator, state policymaker, and national technical assistance provider, she has consistently promoted occupational therapy as an essential and contributing profession for enhancing the lives of young children with disabilities and their families.
Judith Schoonover, MEd, OTR/L, ATP, has a bachelor's degree in occupational therapy from Western Michigan University, a preliminary teaching credential from Chapman University, and a master's of education in integrating technology in schools from George Mason University. In addition to working as a school-based practitioner, Schoonover taught elementary school for more than 4 years. She is a RESNA-certified assistive technology (AT) practitioner and a founding member of the Loudoun County (Virginia) Public Schools AT team.
Schoonover has been active in occupational therapy for more than 30 years, presenting and writing on topics related to school-based practice and assistive technology. She has served as adjunct faculty for George Mason University and Shenandoah University. She is continuing education chairperson for VOTA, a past member of AOTA's EISSIS standing committee, and a member of AOTA's Transition Task Force.
Amy Russell Yun, OTD, MS, OTR/L, teaches in James Madison University's occupational therapy program. Her research interests are infant mental health and occupations of families with young children. She has worked as an occupational therapist within diverse settings, including early intervention, infant mental health, school-based therapy, clinic-based therapy, and transitional living. Yun has presented nationally and locally on topics related to family occupations and infant mental health.